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Shifts in Non-Literary Translation : with focus on EU translation

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 6
1. Style and shifts........................................................................................................... 9
1.1. Style and how to study it........................................................................................ 9
1.2. Shifts in Translation............................................................................................. 11
2. Translation in the European Union......................................................................... 14
2.1. Language policy of the European Union ............................................................. 14
2.2. Problems of EU translation.................................................................................. 15
2.3. EU translation from the perspective of translation studies ............................. 18
3. An Analysis of Style through Shifts in Literary Translation – method proposed by
Hilkka Pekkanen .......................................................................................................... 21
3.1. Objectives of the analysis .................................................................................... 21
3.2. Description of the method.................................................................................... 22
3.3. Findings and evaluation of the method................................................................ 24
4. Methodology............................................................................................................. 26
4.1. Analysed texts...................................................................................................... 27
4.1.1. EU documents............................................................................................... 28
4.1.2. Non-EU documents....................................................................................... 28
4.2. Application of the method and related problems............................................. 30
4.2.1. Types of translation shifts............................................................................. 32
4.2.2. Definition of units of comparison................................................................. 32
4.2.3. Differences between the English and the Slovak Language......................... 33
4.3. Illustration of the method................................................................................... 37
5. Categories of Optional Shifts.................................................................................. 43
5
5.1. Expansion shifts ................................................................................................... 45
5.2. Contraction shifts ................................................................................................. 47
5.3. Shifts in order....................................................................................................... 50
5.4. Miscellaneous shifts............................................................................................. 51
6. Analysis and Its Findings......................................................................................... 54
6.1. General results for respective extracts .............................................................. 54
6.2. Results for respective categories........................................................................ 61
6.2.1. Expansion shifts ............................................................................................ 61
6.2.2. Contraction shifts .......................................................................................... 64
6.2.3. Shifts in order................................................................................................ 66
6.2.4. Miscellaneous shifts...................................................................................... 67
6.3. Summary of the findings.................................................................................... 68
6.4. Evaluation of the method and its problems....................................................... 69
CONCLUSION............................................................................................................... 72
Works Cited ................................................................................................................ 75
Primary sources........................................................................................................... 75
Secondary Sources ...................................................................................................... 76
Resumé – English ........................................................................................................ 79
Resumé – Slovak.......................................................................................................... 80
Appendix A– CD with all the analysed extracts

INTRODUCTION
As suggested by its title, Shifts in Non-Literary Translation, the present thesis deals with
the analysis of certain aspects of non-literary translation, namely translation shifts.
Translation shifts are changes introduced to the target text during the translation process,
whether motivated by objective reasons or subjective preferences of the translator. The
method used in this work to study the translation shifts was proposed by a Finnish scholar
Hilkka Pekkanen in order to study the shifts in literary texts.
The purpose for which Pekkanen (2010) created this method was to study the style of
translators of literary works and to find out whether the 'translator's voice' can be heard in
their translations. The details of her research will be presented later in Chapter 3. Since the
analysis yielded satisfactory results in the domain of literary translations, I would like to try
to apply this method on a different kind of texts in order to examine whether it can work
in other domains too. The first objective of this thesis thus is to test the application of
Pekkanen's method on non-literary texts, and with a different target language; but at the
same time the thesis aims to study the patterns of shifting within non-literary translation,
especially in the documents translated within the European Union institutions as compared
with other non-literary texts.
EU translation represents a specific category of non-literary translation. One of its
dominant characteristics is that EU translators should try to be as faithful to the original as
possible, to avoid different understanding of respective documents in their different
language versions. Another thing is that the translations are usually not a product of one
individual translator but of a whole group of translators, revisers and consultants.
Therefore it is impossible to speak of the style of an individual. Nevertheless, due to these
and other specific features (discussed in Chapter 2), which distinguish EU translation from
other kinds of non-literary translation, it is possible that certain consistency might be found
in the style of EU translation as such. To study whether such consistency exists or whether
each text bears a thumbprint of individual translators, like in the case of literary works, is
.....thus the second objective of this thesis


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